Loop Line specification and contract

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Front cover of the specification

The GWRGreat Western Railway issued the Specification for construction of the Loop Line between Kidderminster and Bewdley in September 1874.

Main article: Kidderminster Loop Line

This transcript of the original document, held by The National Archives, preserves the inconsistent spelling and capitalisation (labour/labor, colour/color, moneys/monies, Works/works) and lack of punctuation. Unfortunately, no known copies of the drawings referred to exist.


The powers to construct a Loop Line between Kidderminster and Bewdley were first granted by the West Midland and Severn Valley Companies Act of 1 August 1861. The two named companies were subsequently absorbed by the GWRGreat Western Railway who were reluctant to build the Loop, and no progress had been made by the time those powers expired in 1865. The GWRGreat Western Railway Act of 31 July 1868 revived those powers for a further 5 years, later extended for 2 more years by the GWRGreat Western Railway Act of 18 July 1872. Completion was therefore due no later than July 1875. The GWRGreat Western Railway had already sought leave for a further extension before issuing the specification in September 1874, in which Clause 2 stated that the work was to be completed by 31 October 1875. The GWRGreat Western Railway Act of 19 July 1875 duly granted a further 2 year extension, with a revised deadline for completion of 18 July 1877.[1]

The Contractor who was appointed on 28 November 1874 was Charles Dickinson. By March 1877 much of the work on was complete, although adverse weather had caused delays. Although it was likely to overrun, the GWRGreat Western Railway did not make a further application for an extension to the July deadline. Construction of the Loop was completed in time for a Board of Trade inspection on 22 March 1878. A further Board of Trade inspection on 29 May authorised the opening of the Loop, and the first public services began on 1 June 1878[2].

Specification and Contract

Great Western Railway Company
Bewdley and Kidderminster Branch

Specification of Works
to be done in constructing the Railway (intended for a single line of Railway) authorized by "The West Midland and Severn Valley Railway Companies Act 1861" "The Great Western Railway Act 1868" and "The Great Western Railway Act 1872" commencing in the Foreign of Kidderminster in the Parish of Kidderminster in the County of Worcester by a Junction with the Severn Valley Line of the Great Western Railway at or near the Bewdley Station and terminating in the foreign, Parish and County aforesaid by a Junction with the West Midland Line of the Great Western Railway at or near the Kidderminster Station, with all Works and Conveniences connected therewith.
General Specification.
1. The Contractor to execute all works

To supply all materials &c
The Contractor shall, to the satisfaction of the Engineer in a workmanlike substantial and lasting manner construct and execute all the Works herein mentioned and specified or referred to whether temporary or permanent including all contingent and incidental works and shall construct and execute all the said Works respectively as delineated on the Drawings enumerated herein, and in the manner and according to the directions and provisions herein after mentioned specified or referred to or in any detailed or modified Specifications Drawings Plans Sections or written instructions which may from time to time be given to the Contractor by the Engineer, and in and for the construction and execution of the said works, the Contractor shall provide and supply all the materials plant articles and things which according to this Specification are to be provided by the Contractor or which may be requisite or proper for the due performance of the works and of all the kinds descriptions and qualities specified in or to be inferred from this Specification and the Drawings or from any detailed Specification Plans Drawings Sections or written instructions as aforesaid of the best and most proper kinds or descriptions respectively to the satisfaction of the Engineer, and shall also find and provide all labour tools plant and machinery requisite or proper for the due performance of the work, and in executing the same shall perform fulfil obey and abide by all the directions provisions terms and conditions of this Specification and the Drawings and of any such detailed Specifications and written instructions as aforesaid and shall be subject to the several liabilities and obligations in case of default herein mentioned it being the intention of these Presents that the Contractor shall do execute and provide in accordance with this Specification everything requisite or proper for the entire performance of the said Works.

2. Contract includes all materials &c

Except permanent way

Time for completion
The Works comprised in the Contract include earth work in every variety of material whether in soft earth or rock, all fences temporary and permanent, all brick, stone, timber and iron-work and all work material and labour of every description necessary for the construction and completion of the respective Railways up to the formation level; the providing and laying thereon of the ballast and also the laying of the permanent way (the materials of which are provided by the Company) and the delivery of the whole of the said works in a complete and perfect condition to the Company on or before the 31st day of October 1875.

3. Contractor not to interfere with conveniences of the adjoining properties &c The Contractor shall not in carrying out the works interfere with the free and uninterrupted use by the respective Proprietors of any of the Railways, Canals, Watercourses, Roads or other conveniences adjoining or near the new Railway, and shall perform all temporary or permanent works, such as alterations, diversions or substitutions which may be necessary to secure the same

4. Contract to be with Great Western Railway
Interpretation of “Company”
The Contract to be based on this Specification is intended to be made with the Great Western Railway Company (hereinafter called "The Company") and whenever the word "Company" is used herein it shall be taken as referring to the said Great Western Railway Company.

5. “Engineer” Whenever the word "Engineer" occurs herein it shall be taken as meaning Edward Wilson[note 1] of 9. Deans Yard Westminster or in case of his death incapacity or removal the Engineer in Chief for the time being of the Company.

6. “Contractor” The word "Contractor" shall be taken to apply equally to all and each of the Partners of a firm (if any) entering into a contract with the said Company or to any single individual making such Contract.

7. “Authority” “Authority” or “orders in writing”, and all expressions to that effect, shall apply to any printed or written Documents signed by the Secretary or Engineer of the Company whether such documents be letters notices drawings or sketches.

8. Company to deliver lands to Contractor The Company will from time to time deliver to the Contractor so much of the Lands required for the works as shall in the opinion of Engineer be sufficient for the commencement by the Contractor of such works respectively and will from time to time deliver to the Contractor possession of the residue of the Land required in such pieces or parcels as the Engineer may think proper and sufficient for the due completion of the said works within the period to which the Contractor is limited by the Contract.

9. Contractor to commence immediately after notice shall have been given by Engineer
Prosecute work with Diligence
And deliver same complete within time limit
The Contractor shall commence the execution of such of the said Works as the Company may from time to time think proper to have executed and as may be included in any notice or notices to that effect from time to time given to him by the Engineer immediately on the receipt of such notice or notices and shall proceed with and execute all such works with due diligence and despatch in the order and course prescribed by the Engineer and shall fully complete the whole of the works and deliver the same over to the Company in good and complete order and condition within the period limited by the Contract.

10. Contractor to maintain the works during progress
And indemnify company from damage to roads &c

And from failure from bad workmanship &c for 12 months
The Contractor shall during the progress of the respective works maintain and keep the same in good and compete condition and working order and repair and reinstate all injuries and damages thereto however caused and shall also bear and pay and indemnify the Company from and against all damages loss penalties costs and expenses which they may sustain or be put to by reason of the death of or injury to any person or persons whomsoever occasioned by the Construction of the Works or arising from any act or default of the Contractor or which may result from the stoppage of traffic on any Railway, Canal, road or public thoroughfare or from or through the stoppage of any watercourse and if within the period of twelve months from the completion of the work and acceptance thereof by the Engineer any failure should arise from bad workmanship or defective materials (excepting the permanent way materials) or should any defect or deficiency be discovered in the works or should any damage be thereby occasioned to any person or persons or to Railways Canals watercourses lands roads footpaths drains telegraphs or sewers or any other matter or thing the Contractor shall forthwith at his own expense remedy and make good any such failure or defect and shall indemnify the Company against all liabilities claims and demands whatsoever by or on the part of any person or persons whomsoever who may sustain damage or inconvenience from or whose interests may be affected by any such failures defects or deficiencies.

11. Land for temporary works by contractors The Contractor shall at his own cost provide all the land required for temporary purposes or for depositing the materials excavated from the foundations and site of the works, or for spoil banks and in order to obtain this, he may as agent of the Company but at his own costs charges and expenses use the powers of the Acts of Parliament authorizing the construction of the said Railways and the Acts incorporated therewith but the situation of the land required for such purposes shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.

12. To make arrangements with owners

Pay all damage

Indemnify Company
The Contractor shall make definite arrangements with the Owners of property in respect of all land or property taken used or entered upon for any temporary purposes and shall pay all damages compensation and purchase or other moneys that may become payable in respect thereof or in respect of trespass on and damage to any adjoining or contiguous properties or in respect of the exercise for such temporary purposes as aforesaid and (as such Agent) of any of the powers of the Acts of Parliament before referred to and will indemnify the Company therefrom and from all losses costs claims and damages charges and expenses on account thereof or in relation thereto and if the said Company shall at any time be called upon to pay any such monies the sums so paid or which the said Company shall be liable to pay shall be charged to the Contractor as so much money paid to him on account of his Contract or at the option of the said Company may be recovered by them from the Contractor as a debt due by the Contractor to the said Company.

13. Differences in drawings Should there appear hereafter to be any discrepancy between measurements by scale on the drawings and the figured or written dimensions the figured or written dimensions shall be taken as correct and drawings made to larger scales and those showing particular parts of any work shall be taken as more correct than those made to smaller scales and for more general purposes.

14. Contractor to see to form of surface &c The Contractor must satisfy himself as to the form of the surface the nature of the soil and of all matters and things and any information which may be obtained from the Engineer or from any of his Agents shall not relieve the Contractor from any risk or from the fulfilment of his Contract or incidental works not particularly mentioned in the specification but which from the nature of the works included in the Contract may be required whether temporary or permanent.

15. Engineer may alter work The whole of the works shall be commenced and carried on at such places as the Engineer may direct and the mode of execution shall be under the control direction and supervision of and to be carried out to the satisfaction of the Engineer who shall have full power to enlarge alter diminish or omit any part of the works herein specified and to alter the line and levels of the Railway as he may think fit and it is to be distinctly understood that the Engineer shall have full power to alter modify enlarge or diminish the works now intended without any such deviation vitiating the Contract and all such alterations shall be valued at the rates contained in the schedule of prices annexed hereto and added to or deducted from the Contract sum as the case may be.

16. Contractor to pay Police The Contractor shall pay the cost of any Police Constables whom the Magistrates may appoint or the Engineer may consider necessary on the Contract.

17. To provide materials, Labor, etc. The Contractor shall at his own cost provide all materials (except those which are in Clause 19 specially excluded) labor, tools, watchmen, lighting, temporary fencing, shoring, centering, coffer dams, sewers, drains, pumping, scaffolding, horses, engines, waggons, barrows, planks, temporary rails, temporary bridges, roads, machinery, implements of every sort and all temporary works of every description necessary for the public safety of fulfilment of any legal obligation arising out of the construction of the said Works and the proper and entire completion of the works on or before the 31st day of October 1875.

18. Not to remove Materials The Contractor shall not at any time during the progress of the Works remove any materials or plant from the Works without order from the Engineer in writing permitting or ordering him so to do.

19. Company will provide rails, etc. The Company will provide all rails, chairs, keys, sleepers, fastenings, fish plates and bolts, switches and crossings, check rails, signals and telegraphs, requisite or necessary for the permanent way and sometime herein called permanent way materials to the Contractor at the Bewdley or the Kidderminster Station, the Contractor conveying the same along the new line at his own cost.

20. Foundations not to be covered till inspected No foundation or other work shall be covered up or hidden from view until the same shall have been inspected and approved by the Engineer or resident Engineer.

21 Contractor to copy Drawings and be responsible for setting out The Contractor shall provide at his own cost copies of all the drawings required in carrying out his contract and shall be responsible for the correct setting out of the Works and for the completion there of in conformity with the Specification and with the Drawings.
List of Drawings

Nº 1 General Plan of Railway[note 2]
 “   2 Longitudinal Section of Railway
 “   3 Cross Sections (Sheet 1)
 “   3a Cross Sections (Sheet 2)
 “   4 Cross Sections of Railway Cuttings + Embankments and Road approaches
 “   5 Gates and Fencing
 “   6 Bridge at 0m 46.88
 “   7 Tunnel from 1m 4 Chs to 1m 26
 “   8 Bridge at 1m 61.15
 “   9 Bridge at 1m 7 Chs and Culverts
 “   10 Viaduct from 2m 11.63 Chs to 2m 17.72
 “   11 Bridge at 2m 26.72
 “   12 Bridge at 2m 46.30
 “   13 Division at River Stour and Canal

23. Contractor not to absent himself and to assist in measuring The Contractor shall not absent himself from the Works without having a fully authorised and competent Agent to act in his stead and shall give the Engineer or his assistants all personal assistance by himself and his Agents and workmen and all labor and materials required in setting out (or in checking his setting out) the work from time to time during the progress of the works.

24. To perform night work if required The Contractor shall carry on by night work any of the work which the Engineer may call upon him so to do without his being entitled to any additional payment for such night work.

25. Workmen to be paid once a fortnight
Office for Resident Engineer
The workmen employed by the Contractor shall be paid in cash at least every fortnight in an Office or Offices to be erected for the purpose and the Contractor shall also provide a convenient office for the Resident Engineer on the works.

26. Acceptance of work No work shall be considered as completed unless accepted in writing by the Engineer.

27. Contractor to keep open Railways, etc. The Contractor, at his own cost, shall keep open, where required, all existing Railways, roads, footpaths, sewers, canals, rivers, etc, free from obstruction at all times during the term of the Contract.

28. And to make good damage to railways, etc. The Contractor shall also be liable for, and shall make good any damage or injury to Railways, Canals and Roads whether public or private, and to contiguous or adjoining lands, buildings or property and to watercourses, sewers, drains, culverts, pipes, telegraphs etc, occasioned by the acts or defaults of himself his agent, servants or workmen of from any cause whatever contingent upon the execution of the works done or omitted by himself for his own purposes as Contractor; and shall take upon himself any liability of the Company to compensate owners and occupiers of buildings and land for temporary damage, and shall pay the costs of all suits and trials which may arise from these causes but this shall not include any compensation which in the ordinary course would be payable by the Company for the injurious affecting of lands, buildings or other property such as the interference with light access, water, etc not occasioned by the acts or defaults of the Contractor or his Agents or Servants.

29. Contractor not to sell sand, etc, excavated The Contractor shall not sell or otherwise dispose of, or remove except for the purpose of the Contract, or as herein mentioned and sand, stone, clay soil or other materials of any kind or description whatsoever, which may be obtained from the excavations, cuttings or embankments from any lands in the possession of the Company.

30. The Company to pay as follows The Company shall, and in manner hereinafter mentioned, pay to the Contractor for the work done under this Contract, such prices and sums of money as are hereinafter provided.

31. Monthly Certificates of the work done The value of the works as they proceed shall be estimated every month by the Engineer and a Certificate of the amount due in respect of work done shall thereupon be granted by the Engineer to the Contractor and in granting such Certificate, the Engineer shall be at liberty, if in his absolute discretion he shall think proper so to do, to add to the amount thereof any further sum which he may think proper in respect of the value of any materials or plant brought by the Contractor on to the ground. Any assistance or labour which the engineer may require for the purpose of enabling him to make such Estimate and all stakes, posts, poles and other articles which may, in his opinion be required for setting out or taking measurements of the works, or for any other purpose whatever shall be found by the Contractor.
32. Authority for alterations No payments for extra or altered works will be allowed unless the contractor can produce an order from the engineer in writing to execute such works and the claim for payment for the same shall be made by the Contractor in time for the Certificate immediately following the execution of such work or the claim will not be there after recognized by the Company.

33. Payments The payments to be made by the Company to the Contractor in respect of work done shall be made monthly and the amount of such payments shall be in accordance with the Certificate of the Engineer, as hereinafter mentioned.

34. Time and mode of payments subject to retention The Contractor shall within fourteen days after the presentation of every such Certificate, be entitled to receive from the Company ninety per cent of the amount so from time to time certified and the Company shall and may retain the remaining 10 per cent until the sums so retained shall amount to £4,000 after which the whole some included in every such Certificate shall be paid to the Contractor. The sums so retained by the Company shall be held by them as a Security for the due performance by the Contractor of the conditions and or stipulations of the Contract, and shall be paid over to him by the Company at the expiration of three months after the due and proper completion of the works as certified by the Engineer, less such an amount as the Engineer may consider necessary to retain to meet any contingencies which might arise through the obligation of the Contractor to maintain the works constructed by him for twelve months, as herein provided for.

35. Payments not to operate as an admission of works being properly constructed The payment of any instalments or sums payable under this Contract shall not affect any question upon the ultimate settlement of the accounts in respect of the Contract, or be taken as a proof or admission of any particular works having been executed, or of the value thereof, or of any works having been properly constructed and executed, but shall be taken as having been made upon account generally only.

36. Not to underlet Contract The Contractor shall not, without the permission of the Engineer first obtained in writing, assign or under let this Contract or any part thereof.

37. Company to have a lien on materials &c The Company shall have a lien on all materials plant, and machinery, tools articles and things which have been or shall be brought or deposited by or for the Contractor upon the site of the works, or upon any other land of the Company adjoining or near thereto and shall be entitled to prevent the Contractor from removing or taking away the same from the site of the said works or such land, without the leave and permission of the Company, and to recover possession of the same, if so removed or taken away without their leave and permission, at any time before the entire execution & completion of the works.

38. Contractor to observe stipulations and requisitions of the Company’s Acts and the general Acts Incorporated therewith

To pay compensation for omission to comply therewith
The Contractor shall at all times during this Contract in the construction and execution by him of the said works, and in the occupation and use of the lands from time to time purchased for the purposes of the said Railways and Works and also of the lands which he may require and obtain possession of for temporary purposes, observe, fulfil and comply with all the directions, stipulations and requisitions with respect thereto of “The West Midland and Severn Valley Railway Companies Act 1861” The Great Western Railway Acts of 1868 and 1872 and the several Public General Acts incorporated therewith so far as the same or any of them are applicable, and of any agreements entered into with Landowners, manufacturers, Public boards, or other Companies, and shall also make and pay to the several persons entitled thereto all compensation, penalties, damages, costs, charges, and expenses incurred by reason of any neglect or omission of the Contractor to comply with the provision of any such Acts of Parliament or Agreements And the Contractor shall save harmless and indemnify the Company from and against all claims and demands for any such compensation, penalties damages and moneys and all actions and other proceedings costs and charges in respect thereof.
39. Company paying compensation to be repaid by contractor

Together with expenses
In case at any time the Company shall be called upon to pay any such compensation penalties damages moneys or costs as are hereby agreed to be paid by the Contractor, the Company shall be entitled to make such payments in respect thereof as they may think fit or be compelled to make (as the case may be) and to procure the repayment by the Contractor of the amount so paid, together with any expenses incurred by the Company in ascertaining or disputing the liability to any such compensation penalties damages moneys or costs, or the amount thereof respectively or in defending any action or suit or other proceeding in respect thereof in manner provided by article 46.

40. In case sufficient Machinery Plant &c not provided by Contractor

Or works not proceeding with due diligence

And in case of non compliance by them Company to enter on Works to provide additional Machinery &c and to recover payments from Contractor.
In case the Engineer is of opinion that sufficient machinery, tools, plant and materials, are not provided, or that a sufficient number of workmen are not employed in the execution or maintenance of the said Works, or that said Works or any part of them are not being carried on with due diligence and despatch, having regard for the time within which the said Works are to be completed or according to the rate of progress which may for the time being have been fixed or regulated by the Engineer in reference to the said Works or such part thereof (as the case may be) or if the Engineer shall think reasonable for the due execution of the said Works with greater diligence and despatch, or to comply with such order as aforesaid, and in the case of the Contractor shall not, within ten days next after the receipt of such notice in all respects comply with the directions thereof, or commence the things thereby required to be done, and diligently proceed therewith so far as the time will admit the Company shall be entitled to enter upon the works, and to do the several matters and things required by the said notice, and for that purpose to provide such additional machinery, tools, plant, and materials and to employ such additional number of workmen and to pay them such wages as the Engineer may think fit and reasonable and to recover from the Contractor all payments which may have been made by the said Company in and about such several matters in the manner hereinafter provided by Article 46

41. Contractor to keep competent Foreman on Works Company may employ another foreman in default of Contractor doing so. The Contractor shall at all times during the progress of the said Works employ and keep at least one competent foreman to superintend the execution of the said Works, and in case the Engineer shall consider the foreman employed by the Contractor incompetent, or to be acting improperly, or not to be properly performing the duties which are to be performed by him and shall thereupon give give the Contractor a notice in writing requesting him to dismiss such foreman and stating therein the grounds for such dismissal , the Contractor shall comply with such notice and employ another foreman in the place of the one so dismissed, and if the Contractor shall fail or omit to comply with such notice within one week after receipt thereof it shall be lawful for the Company by their Engineer to dismiss such foreman, and to employ another in his place at such wages as the Engineer may think reasonable and to recover the amount so paid from the Contractor in manner provided by Article 46.
42. Power of engineer to order dismissal of any workman The Engineer or Resident Engineer shall have the power to order the dismissal of any workman or workmen employed by the Contractor or by any Sub Contractor upon the said Works without assigning any reason for so doing, upon giving three days notice of his intentions so to do to the Contractor or any such Sub Contractor, and if any such workman or workmen shall be retained by the Contractor or any Sub Contractor upon the said Works after such notice has been given the Engineer shall have power to deduct the wages of such workman or workmen out of the monthly moneys due to the Contractor

43. Imperfect work to be taken down and removed

To be executed properly

Without extra charge or extension of time

Company may cause imperfect works to be removed
In case the Engineer shall at any time during the progress of the said works be of opinion that any part of said works is being executed unsoundly or imperfectly, or not with proper materials, or in any respect not in accordance with the Specification, drawings plans or other instructions respectively, given by the Engineer to the Contractor, or shall at any time after the completion of the said works and during any period referred to in Clause 10 be of opinion that any works done by the Contractor have been executed unsoundly or improperly or not with proper materials or have become unsound, or imperfect by reason of accident or from any cause not being the act or default of the Company and in case the Engineer shall thereupon give the Contractor a notice in writing requiring him cause such part of the said works to be taken down and removed and to be re-executed properly, and with proper materials according to the Specification, drawings, plans, or other instructions then the Contractor shall forthwith comply with such notice, and do the several matters and things thereby required of him to the satisfaction of the Engineer without any extra charge and without any extension of the period for the completion of the said works in respect thereof, notwithstanding that before the giving of such notice any payment may have been made by the Company on account of such works so objected to, or any Certificate may have been given by the Engineer of the due execution thereof. And in case the Contractor shall not within ten days after the receipt of such notice have duly complied therewith and executed the works thereby required or commenced and diligently proceeded with the same, the Company shall be entitled to cause the works so objected to, to be taken down and removed and to be executed properly and with proper materials and for that purpose to expend such sum as as the Engineer may consider reasonable and proper and to recover the money so paid from the Contractor in manner provided by Article 46.

44. If Contractor neglects to complete works or become bankrupt or underlets the Company may take Works If the Contractor from any cause not attributable to default on the part of the Company neglect or omit to proceed with and complete or be prevented from or materially delayed in proceeding with and completing the said Works in accordance with this specification or if he shall become bankrupt or insolvent or enter into any arrangement with his Creditors or shall without such consent as hereinbefore mentioned assign or underlet the work or any part thereof except as hereinbefore mentioned the Company shall be entitled on giving fourteen days notice of such their intention or in any case of emergency without any such notice to take the said works entirely out of the hands of the Contractor.

45. In case default made as mentioned Company to be at liberty to let contract to others and provide plant &c In case the Contractor shall make any such default as aforesaid and the said Works be thereupon taken out of his hands of the Company shall be at liberty to contract with and employ any other person or persons to proceed with and complete the same to provide all such plant and material in addition to the plant and materials then being upon the works or upon any land of the Company near or adjoining thereto as may be required for such work and materials such amount as may be agreed upon or may be reasonable and to use or employ all machinery plant machinery tools and articles provided or supplied by the Contractor and then upon the site of the said Works or upon any land adjoining or near thereto and all such payments as may be required to be made and shall in fact be made by the Company for or in relation to the further execution and completion of the said works and the entire fulfilment of the engagement undertaken by the Contractor in and by the contract to be founded upon this Specification and also such sum as may be agreed upon or determined by the Engineer to be reasonable compensation to the Company for any loss or delay occasioned to them by such act or default of the Contractor may be deducted by the Company as the case may be out of any monies remaining in their hands under the provision of these presents and in case the money so remaining shall be insufficient for such purpose then the amount or deficiency as the case may be shall be repaid by the Contractor to the Company on demand but if on the other hand after the Company shall have made all such deductions there shall remain in their hands any balance due to the Contractor under these presents the balance shall be dealt with and applied as the Company may think fit.

46. Moneys payable by Contractor may be deducted from Contract moneys In every case in which by this Specification provision is made either for the payment of money or for the incurring of expenses by the Company which are to be repaid by or recovered from the Contractors the Company shall be entitled to deduct the amount thereof out of any money which may be then due or may at any time thereafter become due to the Contractor from the Company or to sue for and recover the amount or the balance after any such deductions as the case may be as a debt due from the Contractor to the Company.

47. Extension of time to Contractor if Works delayed by act of Company If the Contractor shall be prevented from or materially delayed in proceeding with the execution of the said works or any of them after receiving written notice from the Engineer to commence or proceed, with the same or any of them by reason of any act or omission of the Company such prevention or delay shall not vacate the contract or otherwise affect the same except that in that event the Contractor may within a reasonable time not exceeding one calendar month from the time when such impediment commenced make an application in writing addressed to the Secretary of the Company for an extension of time by reason of such prevention or delay, and for compensation for any loss or extra expense which may be occasioned to him thereby And if the Company shall refuse or neglect upon any such application to grant such extension of time or to make such compensation or if the Contractor shall not be satisfied with such extension of time or compensation as may be offered by them, the question whether any and if any what extension of time or compensation should be granted in respect of such prevention or delay shall be referred to and decided by the Engineer.

48. Notice to Contractor to be given in writing and signed by Secretary or the Engineer The Notices to be given to the Contractor, under the provisions of this Specification, shall be in writing and shall be signed by the Secretary or the Engineer or the Resident Engineer, and shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given and served, if either left at or sent by post to the Contractor, at any place of business or office of the Contractor upon or near the site of the said works, or if delivered to the principal Foreman of the Contractor for the time being employed at or upon the said works.

49. Matters relating to progress of Works etc. to be decided by Engineer Upon all matters and questions relating to works under the Contract with respect to the quality or mode of execution of the works and as to the progress of the works, and as to the sufficiency of the Foreman or Workmen employed thereon, and as to the compliance of the Contractor with the orders and directions of the Engineer and as to the construction and effect of this Specification and such written instructions drawings plans and sections as aforesaid and the compliance or non-compliance of the Contractor therewith and as to all other matters arising under this Contract the decision of the Engineer shall be final and conclusive upon both parties.

50. Materials etc. to be property of Company All materials, trees, timber and all crops upon the site of the Works shall be the property of the Company and as many of them as it may be necessary to remove for the execution of the Works shall be removed from the Works by the Contractor who shall deposit them in such place of safety as may be directed by the Engineer.

51. Penalty for delay in completion The Contractor shall complete the whole of the works comprised in this Contract to the satisfaction of the Engineer on or before the 31st day of October 1875 and for every days delay in so completing the works he shall forfeit to the company by way of ascertained and liquidated damages, the sum of Twenty pounds.

52. Contract to be executed and cost equally divided The Contractor will be required to execute a Contract to be prepared by the Solicitors for the Company and half the Cost of such Contract Deed shall be borne by each party.

Drawing Nº5
All fencing whether of post and Rail, Iron wire or boundary walls shall be of such a description as the Engineer may require, and shall be of the best materials and workmanship of their respective kinds, and placed in such a line or situation as the engineer or his Assistant may direct

Where the fencing intersects roads, streams or footpaths the same shall be made good and secure so as to effectually prevent trespass onto the Railway

The ordinary post and rail fencing shall be of larch.  The posts are to be 7ft 8 ins in length, let 3 feet into the ground, and firmly secured in the ground, They are to be set 9 ft apart, and have 5 Clean Mortice holes for the rails; each post shall be well hooped with 1½ in. new hoop Iron at the top, and have not less than 18 in. sectional area at the smallest end.  The rails 5 in number, shall have 5½ in. section at the smallest part, and shall be straight, sound, and free from shakes or flaws, and carefully fitted into the mortice holes in the posts.  One prick post of Larch, 5 ft 6" long, of scantling, equal to 4½“ x 1½ “ shall be placed between the posts, and well and firmly nailed and clenched, with two wrought Iron rails to each of the horizontal rails. Wire fencing if used shall be of a description and from a Maker approved of by the Engineer. The Contractor shall be paid for the same upon the Manufacturers invoices, with an addition of ten percent to the cost of fence erected.

Quicks[note 3] shall be planted where required The plants to be of not less than 3 years growth sound and healthy planted in two rows 11 inches apart and 12 plants shall be placed in each lineal yard. the mound shall be formed inside the fencing and dug to the proper depth and width and it shall be perforated by 4" drain tiles wherever the nature or slope of the ground may render this necessary to secure effectual drainage. A drain shall be made in each side of the Railway on top of cuttings and at foot of embankments as shewn on Drawing No 4 of such depth as effectually to carry off all water but in no case shall it be less than 18 inches in depth and of the proper slope and form as shewn on the drawings and whenever it intersects cross drains the water from such cross drains shall be properly carried into it and it shall be well puddled opposite all such cross drains.

All wrought fencing shall have four coats of best oil paint the last coat of such color as the Engineer may direct. The posts of approach fencing shall be of English Oak 6 ft 6 in by 4 in and when firmly fixed in the ground it shall stand 4 feet above the surface, the distance from centre to centre of post to be 6 feet. The rails shall be three in number made of best red wood the top rail being 4 inch square set on edge in a birds mouth cut in the top of the post and firmly secured to the post by an iron strap 15" long on each side by 2" wide by one eighth of an inch in thickness. The rails shall be continuous and in lengths of not less than 18 feet properly scarfed and jointed on the top of the post – The other two sails shall be 3½ inches deep by 2 inch thick well and securely morticed into the post – The whole of the posts and sails to be planed and wrought truly square

Occupation Road Field and Footpath Gates
Drawing Nº5
The hanging and closing posts shall be of sound English oak free from sap sawn die square above ground neatly chamfered on the edges and rounded on the top – The gates shall be of sound red wood fir free from sap shakes or flaws of the dimensions given in the drawing the whole planed and wrought truly square – The tenons and mortices shall be well and truly fitted together and when put together the joints shall be made with white lead and secured with an oak pin All the ironwork shall be neatly forged and finished off – The whole of the gates to have four coats of best oil paint the last coat being of such colour as the Engineer may direct – Each occupation and field gate shall be provided with a good galvanized padlock keys and chainAs a unit of measurement, 22 yards or 1/80th of a mile and with a notice board with the usual notice painted on it The occupation and field gates shall be hung so that they will close themselves and have a spring or catch to fasten to the closing post.
Mile and Gradient Posts
Drawing Nº5
A mile or quarter mile post shall be fixed at every quarter of a mile with the distance clearly shewn in miles and quarter miles The gradient posts shall be sound English oak free from sap and shakes and one shall be fixed at change of each gradient with the inclinations clearly painted on it Where required Companies boundary posts shall be fixed as directed by the Engineer The whole of the mile gradient and boundary posts shall have four coats of best oil paint; the last must be of such colour as the Engineer may direct.

Excavations for Foundations
The excavations for foundations of all abutments piers bridge culverts walls and any other brick work or stonework shall be made to the exact size of the concrete brick or stonework and sunk to such a depth as the Engineer may direct and no concrete building or other work shall be commenced without the approval of the Engineer or his Assistant Should the hunches when in solid natural ground be dug by the Contractor of a greater width than is necessary for receiving the walls and foundations any space between the walls and the solid ground adjoining shall be filled and lightly packed with stones, no ash or soil being used.

The excavations shall be kept entirely free from water by pumping or otherwise during the progress of the works until the concrete and stone or brickwork on such foundations is set, the earth arising from such excavation shall be carried to embankment or other part of the work where the engineer may direct and in case no such depository can be found the Contractor shall remove the same from the work entirely and when the erection whatever it may be is completed the foundations shall be filled in and firmly punned round the brickwork or masonry to the surface level the surface of the ground being levelled and made good to the satisfaction of the Engineer. The Contractor at his own cost shall keep open all railways, roads, footpaths, sewers, watercourses, canals, &c free from obstruction at all times during the term of the contract.

Cuttings and Embankments
The Contractor in excavating the cuttings and forming the embankments shall carry out the same in accordance with the longitudinal and cross sections and strictly adhere to the depths and heights figured thereon. The slopes shall be formed to an inclination of 1½ feet horizontal to 1 foot perpendicular for cuttings (except where otherwise shewn on the cross sections) and also for embankments, but should the engineer be of opinion that an increased or flatter slope than that shewn on the cross sections in any of the cuttings or embankments is desirable no extra price per yard will be paid to the Contractor for any increase in the excavations or alterations of embankments.

The plan shows the direction of the railway and the area of land that will be purchased by the Company and upon portions of which the Contractor will with the consent of the Engineer in writing be allowed to erect all necessary machinery temporary houses offices &c for the execution of the works. The red line on the longitudinal section shews the formation lines for the bottoms of the excavations and the level for the top of the embankments & bridges previous to the laying on of the ballast in preparation for the permanent way. The widths of the embankments and cuttings when soiled at the level of formation are severally marked upon the enlarged cross section (drawing no 4) and the dimensions so specified shall in no case be deviated from without the approval of the Engineer in writing. Each embankment shall be carried forward uniformly and be of the dimensions shown on the sections, or such altered inclination of the slopes as the Engineer may consider necessary due allowance being made in the height of the embankment for shrinkage. The side tips shall be kept well in advance of the centre tip. The Contractor shall during his contract remedy any slips and remove any weak or soft spongy parts from the site of the embankments. After the embankments have consolidated the slopes of same and of cuttings shall be neatly trimmed to the proper line before being soiled. In carrying the embankment up to or over bridge or culvert great care shall be used by staging backing and punning so as to cause no unequal pressure or damage to the work. No mud slurry or soft material shall be put into the embankment. The slopes of all embankments and cuttings where ordered shall be sown with grass seed 3½ bushels per acre. Should any spongy or unsound material appear in the cuttings the same shall be removed and if any water springs or leakage appear they shall be carried off as directed by the Engineer.

After the work of excavation and embanking shall have been completed the Contractor shall remove all temporary railway materials and ballast and shall clean up and perfect the formation and drainage according to the drawings, and when the formation shall have thus been properly prepared and approved by the Engineer the bottom ballast shall be laid down to the thickness of one foot and to the width & form shewn on the enlarged cross section of the line. It shall consist of strong blast furnace cinders slag rough gravel or rock broken to a size capable of passing through a 4 inch ring or such hard and dry material as the Engineer may approve. The permanent way shall then be laid and securely packed up and boxed, the top ballast being of the same material as the bottom ballast but broken to pass through a 2 inch ring No sand will be allowed to be used on any consideration whatever nor material containing any admixture of clay or soil.

All the stone must be of the best quality of Red Sandstone of the district all good sound hard stone of equal quality and such as shall receive the approval of the Engineer.[note 4]

The foundation courses of Viaduct and Bridges shall consist of large flat bedded stones laid close together bedded and filled with mortar and brought up to a level surface to receive the masonry of the walls above and the whole work shall be executed in accordance with the drawings applicable to each structure and with the figured dimensions marked thereon.

The masonry shall consist of good flat bedded rubble work lead in level courses (which may be broken) with vertical joints. All the stones used shall be sound and free from shakes and dries laid on their natural beds closely set and bedded and pointed flush in lime mortar.

Great care must be taken in building the piers of the Viaduct to bond the work thoroughly together by means of bond stones of sufficient length to pass through the whole thickness of the piers at such frequent intervals as the Engineer may direct, and no stone shall measure less in the face then 2 feet 6 inches on bed and 1 foot in height.

For abutments and wings of bridges the stones in face shall not be less than 1 foot 6 inches on bed and 9 inches in height and good bond shall be made throughout the whole thickness of all stonework, the lap being in no case less than 8 inches and in every superficial yard of face or back there shall be at least two headers of not less than 3 feet 6 inches in length Internal angles of counter-forts, voids, wings &c shall have proper bond stones alternately out and in bond of sufficient length and at least once in every 3 feet in height they shall be stones bonding each way not less than 3 feet 6 inches in length

All the external angles of mason work shall be finished with large size selected Rubble quoins neatly hammer dressed on heads beds and joints and neatly chisel-draughted on the external angles and where rubble string courses or coping are shewn upon the drawings they shall be neatly finished off with a chisel-draught on the external angles

The whole of the masonry shall be closely and substantially built so that the joints may be as small as possible and all joints shall be neatly pointed and drawn

The springers shall be of selected rubble of the proper sizes with joints and beds neatly hammer dressed. Each stone shall be laid solid and properly bedded in mortar and jointed Where necessary the upper beds shall be fairly chisel-dressed to the proper inclination

The stone parapets of over line bridges shall be built of the dimensions shown having headers through the thickness of the walls at a distance of not more than 3 feet apart in every course of the work and all stones shall have hammer dressed heads and beds closely laid jointed and bedded in lime mortar

In building wing and retaining walls whether curved or plain in the face care is to be taken to maintain the correct batter and the perfect bond of inside and outside work

Behind abutments wings & retaining walls drains shall be formed with stone shivers or larger slag carefully laid in as the work proceeds and likely packed and weeping holes 9 inches by 3 inches shall be carried through all such walls where pointed out by the Engineer

The beds and joints of all Ashlar[note 5] must be boasted[note 6] true throughout and the external faces footed chamfered picked or rough pitched as shall be directed by the Engineer

All moulded and sunk work in strings caps etc. shall be ~ wrought to the detail drawings furnished from time to time to the Contractor.

It is to be distinctly understood that the measurement of all stone work (including Ashlar) is the net size of each stone set in the work. No allowance whatever will be made for waste in working at the Quarry or elsewhere and the price must include all labor waste hoisting setting and every contingent expense.

The bricks shall be good hard sound well shaped and thoroughly burnt bricks all of uniform size and of uniform color in the face of the work, and picked bricks shall be used for facework, copings, string courses &c. No difference of workmanship will be allowed in the inside and outside work and every brick shall be well saturated with water before set in place, the whole of the work shall be flushed up solid with mortar every course and all the outside joints shall be neatly pointed and drawn and no joint shall exceed one fourth of an inch in thickness.

All Brickwork shall be of old English bond throughout unless otherwise ordered by the Engineer and all parts of the work shall be thoroughly bonded together. No broken bricks or pieces will be allowed to be used except what is necessary to form proper bond. Dry filling to be rough broken stone or rough screened gravel. Brick arches shall be built in rings with the hardest selected bricks and properly bonded with a header course when any two rings form a fair radiating joint to the centre. The courses of bricks in the arch shall be gauged and masked on the laggins over the whole length of the centre before any bricks will be permitted to be laid in the arched. The bricks for small arches culverts etc. shall be moulded to suit the radius of the arch. In any case where brick on edge may be substituted for coping the bricks shall be laid as headers bonded in Portland Cement. All the outside or face brickwork to be built from scaffolding on the outside and in no case will face work be allowed to be built overhanded. No arch centres may be eased or struck without the consent of the Engineer and no parapets will be allowed to be built until the centres are clear from the arches. In building wing and retaining walls whether curves or plain in the face care is to be taken to maintain the correct batter and the perfect bond of inside and outside work. 4 ins. Glazed drain pipes shall be carried through retaining walls wing walls of bridges and abutments where pointed out by the Engineer. In road bridges drain pipes of the above dimension shall be placed at four or five feet apart at the level of roadway or Railway under the bridges. For the effectual drainage of the upper surface of all arches the spandrils shall be formed with sufficient fall to allow the free escape of the surface water towards the outside wall and into glazed or cast iron drain pipes as shewn on the drawings and the whole must be made perfectly watertight.

Drawing Nº7
The Tunnel commences at 1M. 4 Chs. & terminates at 1M. 26 Chs. It is 484 yards in length[note 7].

Excavation and Mining ~ The Works consist in constructing a Tunnel of the size necessary for a single line of Railway and lining the same with Brickwork as shewn on Drawing No. 7.

The contractor will be at liberty to open cut the ground at each end of the tunnel to the extent of not more than twelve yards from the front for the purpose of building the end lengths. The width of the Excavation is on no account to be greater than the outside of the Masonry or Brickwork and the sides shall be well supported and kept open by suitable timbering until the Masonry or Brickwork is completed. The open space is then to be filled up to the original surface by layers of clay not more than One foot in thickness, each of which is to be well and carefully punned[note 8] before laying on the succeeding layer. When completely filled, the surface to be neatly trimmed to the surface and inclination of the Excavations and to be properly turfed or soiled and sown with seeds.

The Work is then to be continued from the open ends by mining in the usual way. The Excavation obtained from the Tunnel is to be tipped into the Embankment or run to spoil at the ends of the Tunnel and dressed and soiled as directed by the Engineer.

Should any portion of the Tunnel in the opinion of the Engineer not require to be bricked the same shall be excavated as nearly as possible to the net size shewn on the Drawings and no portion of the Tunnel will be permitted to be of less dimensions than shown on the drawings at any point but no allowance will be made for any Excavations in excess of the drawings. If on the completion of these portions of the Tunnel, the Engineer should on examination be of opinion that any pieces of rock have been so far loosened by the blasting and other mining operations as to be in danger of falling out, the Contractor shall remove such pieces of rock on being required to do so without any additional payment therefor.

The Contractor will be required to support by means of good and sufficient timbering such portions of the tunnel as may require it until the brickwork is executed. Great care must be taken to draw such timber as far as practicable so as not to build it in and the space occupied by the timber must be securely packed or rammed on the removal thereof. No allowance will be made for such timber, whether built in or drawn or for any additional excavating or packing or ramming, consequent thereon, but the Contractor must include all such items in his price for the tunnel

In no case when the tunnel shall require to be so timbered, are the excavations to be carried more than 12 feet in advance of the brickwork, but the lengths to be taken out at one time in advance of the brickwork are to be absolutely at the control of the Engineer

The Contractor shall also, at his own cost and risk provide such pipes, steam jets or other means of ventilation as may be necessary for the proper ventilation of the tunnel so that no hindrance may be occasioned by smoke or foul air Safety recesses or man holes are to be made in the sides of the tunnel of the form and dimensions shewn on the Drawing. The whole of the brick lining to be executed in every respect conformably with the Specification, and if, at any time the regular continuity of the brickwork of the tunnel shall be destroyed either in consequence of shrinking

Or settlement of any part or imperfection of the centres or by any other causes the Contractor shall amend or remove such irregularity in a satisfactory manner.

Drains are to be laid through the side walls to permit of free drainage of water, at such intervals as the Engineer may direct, and drains are to be laid down, each side of the tunnel, of the form and dimensions shewn on the Drawing.

Should the Engineer authorise the Contractor to substitute Masonry for Brickwork in any portion of the side walls of the tunnel, such Masonry shall consist of coursed rubble, and shall be executed in all respects in conformity with the Specification.

Drawing Nº9
The barrels of all culverts shall be built of the dimensions shewn in the Drawings or of such other dimensions as the Engineer may determine during the progress of the Works. The whole of the Brickwork shall be built of well burnt bricks as before specified set in mortar or in Portland Cement where ordered.

The Culverts shall be built in the line of the old watercourses except where otherwise directed by the Engineer the fronts parallel to the line of Railway and built askew where required.

Shall be composed of the best freshly burnt Warwickshire bias Lime, or other approved Lime, ground all of a quality. It shall be mixed with good engine ashes or sharp clean sand, in the proportions of two of ashes or sand and one of Lime measured dry or otherwise as the Engineer may direct, ground & mixed under rollers and thoroughly tempered with a proper quantity of pure fresh water, to a tough paste. All mortar shall be freshly mixed as required for use, and none shall in any case be used after it has been permitted to dry or partially set.
The Concrete shall be composed of clean gravel or broken Stone (which will pass through a ring one inch and a half diameter) clean sharp Sand and Lime in the proportions of six parts gravel and one part fresh burnt Lime of the specified quality, or three parts broken Stone, two parts Sand, and one part of Lime as above. The proportions shall be ascertained by measures to be provided by the Contractor. These materials must be thoroughly mixed by being well raked together, and after having been turned over, a little pure water shall be added and the whole again thoroughly mixed by raking and turning over, then sufficient water shall be added to bring the whole, when again raked, turned over, and thoroughly beaten, to a proper consistency; when placed on the work it shall be carefully levelled and well pounded or tipped from a stage 10 feet high, and brought up in layers not exceeding one foot in thickness, the whole to be levelled off to a uniform level surface before the brick or stone work is begun.
Portland Cement
Shall be of the best quality and approved by the Engineer, mixed with an equal proportion of clean sharp sand, and used fresh and at the first mixing. Softening or retempering will in no case be allowed.
Shall be made by diluting the mortar or cement until it is of such consistency as will allow of its grouting & effectually penetrating in the whole of the work.
All abutments, arches, spandrils, culverts and bridges shall be covered with asphalte of approved quality ¾ of an inch thick carefully put in place hot in two layers, & made perfectly watertight, the asphalte to be carried up to the height and form shown on the drawings.
All timber used in the Contract shall be the best of its’ kind, clean, straight sound & perfectly free from all shakes, sap unsound knots & every defect.

Should any timber be required for flooring or any other purposes it shall be of first class quality, sawn die square & where directed, planed, & it shall be thoroughly creosoted as the Engineer may direct. All centring must be properly constructed the laggings for every arch will be required to be gauged to an uniform thickness, and the upper surface wrought to the true curvature of the arch, and approved by the Engineer. All planed and wrought timber shall have four coats of best oil paint, the last coat to be of colour approved by the Engineer.

The surface of all roadways shall be properly formed and trimmed with an uniform curvature, having a good hard core of a sufficient thickness for it’s length and width.

The metalling shall consist of a layer of Rowley rag or Clee hill Stone or other approved material of the thickness ordered. The ruts shall be filled up from time to time with new material and the whole surface kept smooth and free from water. the road shall in all cases shall be left in such a state that the persons or authorities interested in the same respectively will receive them under their charge. The footpaths shall be uniformly formed and trimmed, coated with a layer of clean gravel or siftings 6 inches thick and the edge of the footpath shall be neatly finished off to the road with a sod ramp.

The Schedule of Prices
referred to in the annexed Specification and Tender.

These prices to include all erections centering scaffolding backing excavation for foundations or Concrete scaffolding, pumping and all contingent works included in the Specification.

£ s d
Post and rail fence with quick set edge and ditch per linear yard - 1 8
Excavation for line carried to embankment including soiling and sowing slopes & not being in close rock of any lead[note 9] per cubic yard - - 10
Excavation as above but in close rock of any lead "       "       " - 1 9
Excavation for tunnel carried to embankment and being almost entirely in close rock of any lead "       "       " - 5 -
Excavation for road approaches River and Stream diversions & foundations carried to embankment "       "       " - 1 6
Embankment for forming raised road approaches including soiling and sowing slopes "       "       " - 1 -
Ballasting for Permanent Way "       "       " - 1 -
Laying the Permanent Way per linear yard - 1 -
Concrete in place per cubic yard - 7 -
Coursed rubble including hammer dressed quions &c "       "       " - 10 6
Brickwork including centering for arches "       "       " 1 1 -
Brick lining to tunnel "       "       " 1 5 -
Ashlar in arch quions string copings &c per cubic foot - 2 6
Blue brick coping set in Cement 14 ins wide per linear yard - 3 -
Timber in sheet piling wales &c shod & driver[note 10] per cubic foot - 4 -
Dry stone pitching 8" thick per sup. yard - 3 -
Asphalte 3/4" thick "       "       " - 3 6
Metalling roads per cubic yard - 3 -
Drain pipes (glazed) 12 ins diam. per linear yard - 3 -
I Charles Dickinson of 117 Brixton Road London Contractor hereby undertake to provide all the materials and labor and to execute all the work required for the construction and entire completion (except the providing of the Permanent Way materials) of the Bewdley and Kidderminster Branch of the Great Western Railway referred to in the annexed Specification and according to all the requirements and upon the terms and conditions of the said Specification and within the period therein named and for the gross sum of £ Thirty nine thousand eight hundred pounds.

And I agree to the prices contained in the foregoing Schedule of Prices as those by which the value of any increase or diminution of the Contract Work is to be ascertained for the purpose of payment or deduction and generally as the prices to be used in the manner stated in the Specification.

And I also undertake to execute a Contract Deed to this effect and to enter into a Bond myself and to provide two good and satisfactory Sureties severally and to the joint amount of £6000 conditioned for the due completion of the Contract according to the Specification.


  1. Edward Wilson was previously Locomotive and Permanent Way Engineer for the Oxford Worcester and Wolverhampton Railway and later the West Midland Railway In 1864 Wilson he established his own practice, Edward Wilson & Co, and worked on projects for a number of railway companies, including the GWRGreat Western Railway. He died on 26 August 1877; resident Engineer Mr Tyrell saw the project through to completion.
  2. The mileages shown in the Specification were measured from Bewdley South junction towards Kidderminster.
  3. "Quicks" are quickthorn (hawthorn) cuttings used in creating a hedge.
  4. In May 1875 the appointed contractor, Charles Dickinson, wrote to the GWRGreat Western Railway explaining his difficulty in obtaining suitable stone for the piers of Falling Sands Viaduct and requesting the difference in price for it to be built entirely of brick, to which the GWRGreat Western Railway agreed.
  5. "Ashlar" is masonry made of large square-cut stones, used as a facing on walls of brick or stone rubble
  6. "Boasted" is a stone finish comprising multiple parallel lines
  7. The actual length of Bewdley Tunnel is 480 yards
  8. "Punned" is similar to "puddled", clay that has been rammed hard to make it water tight.
  9. "Lead" in this context refers to the distance between an excavation (typically a cutting or tunnel) and the point where the soil and rock is deposited (typically an embankment).
  10. "Wales" are horizontal timber used to reinforce the piling. "Shod & driver" refers to metal end caps on the pilings to stop them splitting as they are driven in.

See also


  1. Marshall (1989) pp. 58,62,81.
  2. Marshall (1989) p. 83.